Emission Tomography: The Fundamentals of PET and SPECT

Principles and Applications of Nuclear Medical Imaging: A Survey on Recent Developments
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Fundamentals of Molecular Imaging | CIRC

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. These acquisitions are then used to correct the effect of self-absorption. Development of SPECT and PET systems much more efficient enable major advances in the clinical use of these techniques with very widespread applications field.

Use of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Pharmacokinetics - Module 2, Session 2

Additional development may include research on more efficient scintillators, the use of more adequate recording geometries, such as the conical geometry for example, accompanied sure with the development of robust reconstruction algorithms. Time-of-Flight technology has always held the promise of better PET imaging.

Philips delivered on that promise with its innovative Astonish TF technology.

Design of Hybrid machines has been a very interesting research and technologic development axe in nuclear imaging during last fifteen years. PET-CT is creating a new benchmark in imaging and analysis of cardiovascular disease. This hybrid machine allows table to remain stationary in many cases, eliminating complexities inherent in table indexing, acquires the entire heart volume in just one rotation and permits patients to breathe normally during SPECT and CT acquisitions.

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In oncology, it plays an important role in diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in the oncology cycle of care, including the use of low-dose localization and aids better visualization that is especially valuable during studies and in bone imaging. Researchers continue to develop new ways of using PET. Compared to CT, MRI generally provides more detailed images, which can aid in the more precise localization of cancerous growths.

A hybrid PET-MRI scanner simultaneously delivers functional information plus anatomy and tissue characterization soft tissue contrast and blood vessel physiology , from a state-of-the-art MRI scanner. At the same time, it provides metabolic imaging from PET technology. After giving entire satisfactory at the research tests level and their importance in oncology and cardiology were well demonstrated, many international companies were interested in the fabrication of such kind of hybrid imaging machine.

The latest version offers a higher spatial resolution responding to neurological applications. GE ST machines are available in versions scanner 4, 8 or 16 cups. The 2D acquisition abandoned by other manufacturers is optional and defended by GE to obtain less noisy images useful for some advanced applications or for overweight patients and for new applications mostly outside the scope FDG.

This criterion is important for obese patients. The Infinia has an open stand. It is available in solo or in combination with a scanner. Hawkeye 4 should respond to all applications except exams angio CT or cardiology. With the ability to provide precise localization of tumors and other pathologies before disease reveals itself, Symbia has the potential to revolutionize treatment planning for cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.

Symbia has enormous potential for cardiac imaging, revealing even the hard-to-detect conditions that carry the highest risk for patients.

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Simultaneous PET and MRI scans eliminate the need to move patients from one imaging unit to another, making it easier to combine data from both scans to produce enhanced details. The scanner also exposes patients to significantly lower radiation levels than an older combined scanning technique, PET-computed tomography CT.

PET-MRI scanner is used in understanding certain types of malignancies, such as cancers of the brain, neck and pelvis because the anatomy is very complex in those areas, and combined PET-MRI should produce a more detailed reading of the intricate boundaries between disease and healthy tissue. In , Philips unveiled its own solution which involves a 3T MR and a high resolution PET scanner with an integrated rotating table that passes the patient from one machine immediately into the other.

The device, the Biograph mMR, is the first integrated PET-MR device capable of doing simultaneous whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scans. In addition to conventional nuclear image processing methods described above, Registration and Validation are also a very important research axes in nuclear imaging. In this section, we present the state-of-the-art and research topics regarding only these two axes. There is increasing interest in being able to automatically register medical images from either the same or different modalities.

Registered images are proving useful in a range of applications, not only providing more correlative information to aid in diagnosis, but also assisting with the planning and monitoring of therapy, both surgery and radiotherapy. Many basic criteria can be used, which each can be developed and subdivided again [ 32 , 33 ]. The main are the following:. Dimensionality: 2D or 3D only spatial dimensions or time series with spatial dimensions;.

Nature of registration basis: Extrinsic, Intrinsic or Non-image based calibrated coordinate systems ;. Modalities involved: mono-modal, multi-modals, modality to model or patient to modality;. Although great advances have been made in basic nuclear medicine imaging in both the detection and estimation tasks, personalized medicine is a challenging goal.

That requirement has led to the increasing development of hybrid imaging systems. The development of image reconstruction algorithms, simulation tools, and techniques for kinetic model analysis plays an important role in the right interpretation of the generated image signals. Development of these software tools is essential to accurately model the data and thereby quantify the radiotracer uptake in nuclear medicine studies.

The ability to perform this task in practice has benefited from the increased availability of powerful computing resources. For example, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm with data corrections built into the system model was considered to be impractical a decade ago.

Yet, this type of algorithm can now be used to generate images in a practical amount of time in both the research laboratory and the clinic Leaders in instrumentation and computational development in nuclear medicine from universities, national laboratories, and industry were solicited for commentary and analysis. The ability of nuclear imaging devices to provide anatomical images and physiological information has provided unparalleled opportunities for biomedical and clinical research, and has the potential for important improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of diseases.

However, all nuclear imaging devices suffer from various limitations that can restrict their general applicability. Some major limitations are sensitivity, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and ease of interpretation of data.

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To overcome these limitations, scientists have worked particularly on: on: 1 Development of technological and methodological advances that improve the sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution, 2 Development of multi-modality approaches that combine two or more biomedical imaging techniques. In addition to these two research areas, validation of nuclear imaging technologies and methodologies is uncontainable to develop nuclear imaging and medicine. Development of "multi-modality" approaches could be used to combine information that might not be available from a single imaging technique or to compare and validate results obtained with one imaging technique with results obtained using another imaging technique.

Thus, development and improving approaches for analysis and optimization of complex multi-component biomedical imaging devices is highly required. The validation methods are classified in the following main categories:.